Today, Chile is one of the growing economies that is investing highly in ICT and innovation. It is also one of the countries that has a friendly relation with the other parts of Latin America. The foreign businesses and organisations see Chile as the gateway to Latin America. But growing interconnectedness and technology has brought with it new challenges. The challenge is to tackle growing cybercrime, cybersecurity awareness, and maintaining a healthy digital ecosystem.
Currently, the cybersecurity is very centrally controlled in Chile. The government has the authority to control all aspects of cybersecurity in critical infrastructure, and financial institutions. However, there is no awareness programs in place, and without a cybersecurity strategy. The IMF found that Chile’s legal framework for combating cybercrime is fragmented and inconsistent. Certain concepts exist across the board but a lack of detail could lead to discrepancies in compliance requirements, difficulties in enforcement as well as insufficient investment in preventive measures by the institutions concerned. Also, Cybersecurity has become an important issue on Chile’s political agenda after a number of high-profile cyberattacks, including a hit on Banco de Chile, which saw thieves make off with US$18mn.
The Universities in Chile offer Cybersecurity degrees.
The companies don’t have any regulation or compliance to disclose any data breach. This adds to the threat landscape. There is also enough talent but no opportunity as cybersecurity is not the key priority due to gap in legislation. Since cybersecurity is very centralised we want to decentralise it with the awareness programs sensitising people on the issues of cybersecurity and cyber-hygiene practices.
1.1 LEGAL MEASURES
1.1.1 CRIMINAL LEGISLATION
Specific legislation on cybercrime has been enacted through the following instrument:
- Law on Cybercrime.
1.1.2 REGULATION AND COMPLIANCE
Specific legislation and regulation related to cybersecurity has been enacted through the following instruments:
– Law on Personal Data Protection
- Law on Electronic Documents and Digital Signature.
1.2 TECHNICAL MEASURES
Chile has an officially recognized national CIRT, CLCERT. CLCERT-CL has existed and functioned within the government but it is not a formal institutional entity so much as an operational capacity and structure maintained by the Ministry of the Interior and Public Safety. (CSIRT)
Chile has officially approved the Supreme Decree No. 1299, Program for the Improvement of Information Security Systems Management as the national framework for implementing internationally recognized cybersecurity standards.
There is no information on any framework for certification and accreditation of national agencies and public sector professionals.
1.3 ORGANIZATION MEASURES
While there is no official national cybersecurity strategy or policy document, Chilean authorities have been working for a number of years to develop a strong national capacity for cyber incident response and management. Emphasis has been placed on developing standardized procedures and best practices for incident management and cybersecurity more broadly.
1.3.2 ROADMAP FOR GOVERNANCE
There is no national or sector-specific governance roadmap for cybersecurity in Chile.
1.3.3 RESPONSIBLE AGENCY
The Ministry of the Interior and Public Safety, Cyber Crime Investigation Unit (BRICIB), the General Secretariat of the Presidency and the Sub-Secretariat of Telecommunications all play key roles in cybersecurity.
1.3.4 NATIONAL BENCHMARKING
There is no national benchmarking and referential to measure cybersecurity development in Chile.
1.4 CAPACITY BUILDING
1.4.1 STANDARDISATION DEVELOPMENT
Regular risk assessments and trainings for staff are also carried out occasionally as a means of research and development (R&D) programs/projects for cybersecurity standards, best practices and guidelines to be applied in the public sector.
1.4.2 MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT
Personnel from CLCERT -CL receive technical training in aspects of cyber investigations and incident management from experts in the field. Cybersecurity and cybercrime-related bachelors and masters degrees are offered by the University of Chile and other academic institutions. To raise awareness and promote a culture of cybersecurity the Ministry of Education has developed and is implementing, in partnership with several private sector entities, a longterm campaign called Internet Segura. Internet safety is taught in schools as part of the ethics competencies contained in the Technology curriculum.
1.4.3 PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION
Chile does not have the exact number of public sector professionals certified under internationally recognised certification programs in cybersecurity.
1.4.4 AGENCY CERTIFICATION
Chile does not have any certified government and public sector agencies certified under internationally recognised standards in cybersecurity.
1.5.1 INTRA-STATE COOPERATION
To facilitate sharing of cybersecurity assets across borders or with other nation states, CLCERT-CL has actively collaborated with other national CSIRTs around the region in responding to incidents.
1.5.2 INTRA-AGENCY COOPERATION
Chile does not have any officially recognized national or sector-specific programs for sharing cybersecurity assets within the public sector.
1.5.3 PUBLIC SECTOR PARTNERSHIP
Private companies are able and encouraged by the government to also provide incident management-related services, both to other private enterprises as well as public institutions in Chile.
1.5.4 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
To facilitate participation in regional/international cybersecurity platforms and forums: CLCERT is a member of the FIRST. CLCERT-CL has participated in initiatives to train personnel in other OAS Member States.
2. CHILD ONLINE PROTECTION
2.1 NATIONAL LEGISLATION
– Article 366quater and 366quinquies of the Criminal Code, included by Law n. 19.927/2004, January 2004.
- Articles 374 to 374ter of the Criminal Code, included by the Law n.19.617, July 1999, 19.806, May 2002 and 19.927, January 2004.
2.2 UN CONVENTION AND PROTOCOL
Chile has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34(c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Chile has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to The Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
2.3 INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT
The website of the Chilean Computer Emergency Response Team CLCERT has general information on cybersecurity and specific information on child online protection.
2.4 REPORTING MECHANISM
Computer incidents can be reported to the National Chile Computer Emergency Response Team CLCERT by the email email@example.com. The Integra Foundation provides a helpline.
Chile currently has cybersecurity agreements with Israel, the UK, Spain, Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia and the OAS. Through this tie we would strengthen the relations with India as well.